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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Types of Trauma


Types of Trauma

These articles describe common traumas, their prevalence and potential impact on survivors, while also addressing treatment implications.

War and Military

Disaster and Terrorism

Key information

Response and treatment

Manuals and tools

  • Stress First Aid (SFA)
    Stress First Aid (SFA) is a framework to improve recovery from stress reactions, both in oneself and in coworkers. The goal of SFA is to identify stress reactions along a stress continuum and to help reduce the likelihood that stress outcomes develop into more severe or long-term problems using core actions appropriate for self-care and coworker support. Training materials are available.
  • Psychological First Aid (PFA): Field Operations Guide
    PFA is an evidence-informed modular approach for assisting people in the immediate aftermath of disaster to reduce initial distress and to foster short and long-term adaptive functioning. The guide, created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, is available in multiple languages and includes handouts for survivors. Online training and a YouTube PFA Channel are available.
  • Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR) Guide
    SPR aims to help survivors gain skills to manage distress and cope with post-disaster stress and adversity. SPR is intended to follow Psychological First Aid (PFA) in the weeks and months following disaster and mass violence events. The guide was created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network as well as others involved in disaster response; training information is available.
  • PFA Mobile
    Following disasters or emergencies, the PFA Mobile app can assist responders who provide Psychological First Aid (PFA) to adults, families, and children.

Helping specific populations

Disaster and terrorism research

Abuse and Sexual Trauma

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Continuing Education Online Courses

Learn from expert researchers and earn free Continuing Education (CE) credits.

Are you treating Veterans with PTSD? We can help. PTSD Consultation Program for providers who treat veterans.

PTSD Consultation Program

Expert guidance for treating Veterans with PTSD.

Documents with the words Article Database (PTSDpubs)

Article Database — PTSDpubs

Search the world's literature on trauma and PTSD.

PTSD Information Voice Mail: (802) 296-6300
Also see: VA Mental Health